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Legal Citation

Tips and tricks for starting out with the Bluebook, ALWD, or other legal citation guide.

Guide to Foreign and International Legal Citations

The ALWD Guide to Legal Citation provides in its index to see Guide to Foreign and International Legal Citations (NYU Guide) for "foreign materials." The NYU Guide lists foreign citation standards, altering where they do not conform to U.S. legal journal standards. Accordingly, for languages that do not use a Roman alphabet, all titles and names should be transliterated, e.g., using the ALA-LC Romanization Tables. Although not required, "common practice in the United States is to place English translations within square brackets after foreign words in the original citation" (p. xviii).

Example: Royal Decree no. 11, July 15, 1962, Niza al-Waqalat-al-Tijariyah [Commercial Representation Decree], art. 1.

Check this chart to see if your country of interest is included in the NYU Guide.

The NYU Guide contains three major parts:

  1. Country Citation Guides
    Country profiles, citations guides, and selected references organized alphabetically by country name.
  2. Citation Guides for International Organizations and Related Tribunals
    Treaties, UN, ICJ, EU, WTO, and Sharia Law.
  3. Citation Guides for International and Regional Tribunals
    Major international tribunals, criminal tribunals, and regional courts.

Country Coverage Comparison Chart

Country NYU Guide Bluebook
Argentina (Argentine Republic) pp. 3-7 T2.1
Australia pp. 9-13 T2.2
Austria pp. 15-19 T2.3
Belgium (Kingdom of Belgium) pp. 21-24 T2.4
Brazil Republic of Brazil) pp. 25-29 T2.5
Canada pp. 31-34 T2.6
Catholic Church pp. 25-29 T2.7
Chile (Republic of Chile)   T2.8
China (People's Republic of China) pp. 35-39 T2.9
Colombia (Republic of Colombia) pp. 349-51 T2.10
Czech Republic pp.41-44 T2.11
Denmark pp. 45-49  
Egypt (Arab Republic of Egypt) pp. 51-55 T2.12
El Salvador    
Ethiopia pp. 57-59  
Finland pp. 61-64  
France (Republic of France) pp. 65-70 T2.13
Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) pp. 71-77 T2.14
Greece pp. 79-83 T2.15
Hong Kong pp. 85-88 T2.16
Hungary (Republic of Hungary)   T2.17
India pp. 89-95 T2.18
Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran)   T2.19
Iraq (Republic of Iraq)   T2.20
Ireland (Republic of Éire) pp. 97-101 T2.21
Israel pp. 103-08 T2.22
Italy (Republic of Italy) pp. 109-13 T2.23
Ivory Coast    
Japan pp. 115-19 T2.24
Kenya   T2.25
Lebanon (Republic of Lebanon)   T2.26
Malaysia pp. 121-22  
Mexico (United Mexican States) pp. 123-28 T2.27
Morocco (Kingdom of Morocco) pp. 129-32  
The Netherlands (Kingdom of the Netherlands) pp. 133-37 T2.28
New Zealand pp. 139-42 T2.29
Nicaragua   T2.30
Nigeria pp. 143-46 T2.31
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of North Korea)    
Norway pp. 147-49  
Pakistan (Islamic Republic of Pakistan) pp. 151-54 T2.32
The Philippines pp. 155-59 T2.33
Poland pp. 161-64  
Roman Law   T2.35
Romania pp. 164-68  
Russian Federation (Russia) pp. 169-74 T2.36
Saudi Arabia (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) pp. 175-77  
Singapore pp. 179-82  
Slovakia (Slovak Republic)    
Slovenia (Republic of Slovenia)    
South Africa (Republic of South Africa) pp. 183-86 T2.37
South Korea (Republic of Korea) pp. 187-79 T2.38
Spain (Kingdom of Spain) pp. 191-94 T2.39
Sudan (Republic of Sudan)    
Sweden pp. 195-97 T2.40
Switzerland pp. 199-203 T2.41
Taiwan (Republic of China) pp. 205-08 T2.42
Tanzania pp. 209-12  
Thailand pp. 213-15  
Turkey pp. 217-20  
United Kingdom
(England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland)
pp. 221-26 T2.43
Zambia (Republic of Zambia)   T2.44

For those countries listed with no corresponding page numbers, please see WashU's International Citation Manual.